- VIVITROL Treatment
- VIVITROL Efficacy
- VIVITROL Safety
- VIVITROL Resources
- Support Your Patients
- Information for Patients
Physicians should include the following issues in discussions with patients for whom they prescribe VIVITROL®:
Advise patients that if they previously used opioids, they may be more sensitive to lower doses of opioids and at risk of accidental overdose should they use opioids when their next dose is due, if they miss a dose, or after VIVITROL treatment is discontinued. It is important that patients inform family members and the people closest to the patient of this increased sensitivity to opioids and the risk of overdose.
Advise patients that because VIVITROL can block the effects of opioids, patients will not perceive any effect if they attempt to self-administer heroin or any other opioid drug in small doses while on VIVITROL. Further, emphasize that administration of large doses of heroin or any other opioid to try to bypass the blockade and get high while on VIVITROL may lead to serious injury, coma, or death.
Patients on VIVITROL may not experience the expected effects from opioid-containing analgesic, antidiarrheal, or antitussive medications.
Advise patients that a reaction at the site of VIVITROL injection may occur. Reactions include pain, tenderness, induration, swelling, erythema, bruising, or pruritus. Serious injection site reactions including necrosis may occur. Some of these injection site reactions have required surgery. Patients should receive their injection from a healthcare provider qualified to administer the injection. Patients should be advised to seek medical attention for worsening skin reactions.
Advise patients that they should be off all opioids, including opioid-containing medicines, for a minimum of 7 – 10 days before starting VIVITROL in order to avoid precipitation of opioid withdrawal. Patients transitioning from buprenorphine or methadone may be vulnerable to precipitation of withdrawal symptoms for as long as two weeks. Ensure that patients understand that withdrawal precipitated by administration of an opioid antagonist may be severe enough to require hospitalization if they have not been opioid-free for an adequate period of time, and is different from the experience of spontaneous withdrawal that occurs with discontinuation of opioid in a dependent individual. Advise patients that they should not take VIVITROL if they have any symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Advise all patients, including those with alcohol dependence, that it is imperative to notify healthcare providers of any recent use of opioids or any history of opioid dependence before starting VIVITROL to avoid precipitation of opioid withdrawal.
Advise patients that VIVITROL may cause liver injury. Patients should immediately notify their physician if they develop symptoms and/or signs of liver disease.
Advise patients that they may experience depression while taking VIVITROL. It is important that patients inform family members and the people closest to the patient that they are taking VIVITROL and that they should call a doctor right away should they become depressed or experience symptoms of depression.
Advise patients to carry documentation to alert medical personnel to the fact that they are taking VIVITROL (naltrexone for extended-release injectable suspension). This will help to ensure that patients obtain adequate medical treatment in an emergency.
Advise patients that VIVITROL may cause an allergic pneumonia. Patients should immediately notify their physician if they develop signs and symptoms of pneumonia, including dyspnea, coughing, or wheezing.
Advise patients that they should not take VIVITROL if they are allergic to VIVITROL or any of the microsphere or diluent components.
Advise patients that they may experience nausea following the initial injection of VIVITROL. These episodes of nausea tend to be mild and subside within a few days post-injection. Patients are less likely to experience nausea in subsequent injections. Patients should be advised that they may also experience tiredness, headache, vomiting, decreased appetite, painful joints and muscle cramps.
Advise patients that because VIVITROL is an intramuscular injection and not an implanted device, once VIVITROL is injected, it is not possible to remove it from the body.
Advise patients that VIVITROL has been shown to treat alcohol and opioid dependence only when used as part of a treatment program that includes counseling and support.
Advise patients that dizziness may occur with VIVITROL treatment, and they should avoid driving or operating heavy machinery until they have determined how VIVITROL affects them.
Advise patients to notify their physician if they:
Patients should be advised of any other risks and information based on the clinical judgment of their physician.
A pain management card or patient safety bracelet or necklace can be ordered from: 1-800-848-4876, Option #1.
Meet with your local VIVITROL rep for detailed information.
Help alert healthcare providers that your patient is on VIVITROL.
VIVITROL is indicated for:
VIVITROL is contraindicated in patients:
Vulnerability to Opioid Overdose: Because VIVITROL blocks the effects of exogenous opioids for approximately 28 days after administration, patients are likely to have a reduced tolerance to opioids after opioid detoxification. As the blockade dissipates, use of previously tolerated doses of opioids could result in potentially life-threatening opioid intoxication (respiratory compromise or arrest, circulatory collapse, etc). Cases of opioid overdose with fatal outcomes have been reported in patients who used opioids at the end of a dosing interval, after missing a scheduled dose, or after discontinuing treatment. Patients and caregivers should be told of this increased sensitivity to opioids and the risk of overdose.
Any attempt by a patient to overcome the VIVITROL blockade by taking opioids may lead to fatal overdose. Patients should be told of the serious consequences of trying to overcome the opioid blockade.
Injection Site Reactions: VIVITROL injections may be followed by pain, tenderness, induration, swelling, erythema, bruising, or pruritus; however, in some cases injection site reactions may be very severe. Injection site reactions not improving may require prompt medical attention, including, in some cases, surgical intervention. Inadvertent subcutaneous/adipose layer injection of VIVITROL may increase the likelihood of severe injection site reactions. Select proper needle size for patient body habitus, and use only the needles provided in the carton. Patients should be informed that any concerning injection site reactions should be brought to the attention of their healthcare provider.
Precipitation of Opioid Withdrawal: Withdrawal precipitated by administration of VIVITROL may be severe. Some cases of withdrawal symptoms have been severe enough to require hospitalization and management in the ICU. To prevent precipitated withdrawal, patients, including those being treated for alcohol dependence:
Patients should be made aware of the risk associated with precipitated withdrawal and be encouraged to give an accurate account of last opioid use.
Hepatotoxicity: Cases of hepatitis and clinically significant liver dysfunction have been observed in association with VIVITROL. Warn patients of the risk of hepatic injury; advise them to seek help if experiencing symptoms of acute hepatitis. Discontinue use of VIVITROL in patients who exhibit acute hepatitis symptoms.
Depression and Suicidality: Alcohol- and opioid-dependent patients taking VIVITROL should be monitored for depression or suicidal thoughts. Alert families and caregivers to monitor and report the emergence of symptoms of depression or suicidality.
When Reversal of VIVITROL Blockade Is Required for Pain Management: For VIVITROL patients in emergency situations, suggestions for pain management include regional analgesia or use of non-opioid analgesics. If opioid therapy is required to reverse the VIVITROL blockade, patients should be closely monitored by trained personnel in a setting staffed and equipped for CPR.
Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Cases of eosinophilic pneumonia requiring hospitalization have been reported. Warn patients of the risk of eosinophilic pneumonia and to seek medical attention if they develop symptoms of pneumonia.
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Patients should be warned of the risk of hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis.
Intramuscular Injections: As with any IM injection, VIVITROL should be administered with caution to patients with thrombocytopenia or any coagulation disorder.
Serious adverse reactions that may be associated with VIVITROL therapy in clinical use include severe injection site reactions, eosinophilic pneumonia, serious allergic reactions, unintended precipitation of opioid withdrawal, accidental opioid overdose, and depression and suicidality. The adverse events seen most frequently in association with VIVITROL therapy for alcohol dependence include nausea, vomiting, injection site reactions (including induration, pruritus, nodules, and swelling), muscle cramps, dizziness or syncope, somnolence or sedation, anorexia, decreased appetite or other appetite disorders. The adverse events seen most frequently in association with VIVITROL in opioid-dependent patients also include hepatic enzyme abnormalities, injection site pain, nasopharyngitis, insomnia, and toothache.
You are encouraged to report negative side effects to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch or call 1-800-FDA-1088.