- VIVITROL Treatment
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- Information for Patients
A six-month study showed that after detox, opioid-dependent patients who participated in counseling and took VIVITROL, compared to those participating in counseling and taking placebo1,2:
*Complete abstinence was defined as a negative urine drug test for opioids and no self-reported opioid use for all weekly visits.
**Craving was measured by self-reported "need for opioids" using a visual analog scale.
A six-month study showed that alcohol-dependent patients who participated in counseling and took VIVITROL, compared to those participating in counseling and taking placebo1,3:
†Heavy drinking was defined as a self-report of 5 or more standard drinks consumed on a given day for male patients and 4 or more drinks for female patients.
In a subset‡ of patients who were able to abstain from drinking for the week prior to receiving VIVITROL, patients1:
The same results were not seen in patients who were actively drinking.‖
‡n=83, 8% of the total study population
§Complete abstinence was defined as no self-reported alcohol use for all weekly visits.
‖n=571, 92% of the total study population
See the clinical studies section for VIVITROL in the Prescribing Information.
Click here to learn more about these and additional Important Safety Information.
1. VIVITROL [prescribing information]. Waltham, MA: Alkermes, Inc; rev Dec 2015.
2. Krupitsky E, Nunes EV, Ling W, Illeperuma A, Gastfriend DR, Silverman BL. Injectable extended-release naltrexone for opioid dependence: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre randomised trial. Lancet. 2011;377(9776):1506-1513.
3. Garbutt JC, Kranzler HR, O’Malley SS, et al; for the Vivitrex Study Group. Efficacy and tolerability of long-acting injectable naltrexone for alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005;293(13):1617-1625.
Clinical efficacy of VIVITROL and counseling for opioid dependence.
Clinical efficacy of VIVITROL and counseling for alcohol dependence.
VIVITROL is indicated for:
VIVITROL is contraindicated in patients:
Vulnerability to Opioid Overdose: Because VIVITROL blocks the effects of exogenous opioids for approximately 28 days after administration, patients are likely to have a reduced tolerance to opioids after opioid detoxification. As the blockade dissipates, use of previously tolerated doses of opioids could result in potentially life-threatening opioid intoxication (respiratory compromise or arrest, circulatory collapse, etc). Cases of opioid overdose with fatal outcomes have been reported in patients who used opioids at the end of a dosing interval, after missing a scheduled dose, or after discontinuing treatment. Patients and caregivers should be told of this increased sensitivity to opioids and the risk of overdose.
Any attempt by a patient to overcome the VIVITROL blockade by taking opioids may lead to fatal overdose. Patients should be told of the serious consequences of trying to overcome the opioid blockade.
Injection Site Reactions: VIVITROL injections may be followed by pain, tenderness, induration, swelling, erythema, bruising, or pruritus; however, in some cases injection site reactions may be very severe. Injection site reactions not improving may require prompt medical attention, including, in some cases, surgical intervention. Inadvertent subcutaneous/adipose layer injection of VIVITROL may increase the likelihood of severe injection site reactions. Select proper needle size for patient body habitus, and use only the needles provided in the carton. Patients should be informed that any concerning injection site reactions should be brought to the attention of their healthcare provider.
Precipitation of Opioid Withdrawal: Withdrawal precipitated by administration of VIVITROL may be severe. Some cases of withdrawal symptoms have been severe enough to require hospitalization and management in the ICU. To prevent precipitated withdrawal, patients, including those being treated for alcohol dependence:
Patients should be made aware of the risk associated with precipitated withdrawal and be encouraged to give an accurate account of last opioid use.
Hepatotoxicity: Cases of hepatitis and clinically significant liver dysfunction have been observed in association with VIVITROL. Warn patients of the risk of hepatic injury; advise them to seek help if experiencing symptoms of acute hepatitis. Discontinue use of VIVITROL in patients who exhibit acute hepatitis symptoms.
Depression and Suicidality: Alcohol- and opioid-dependent patients taking VIVITROL should be monitored for depression or suicidal thoughts. Alert families and caregivers to monitor and report the emergence of symptoms of depression or suicidality.
When Reversal of VIVITROL Blockade Is Required for Pain Management: For VIVITROL patients in emergency situations, suggestions for pain management include regional analgesia or use of non-opioid analgesics. If opioid therapy is required to reverse the VIVITROL blockade, patients should be closely monitored by trained personnel in a setting staffed and equipped for CPR.
Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Cases of eosinophilic pneumonia requiring hospitalization have been reported. Warn patients of the risk of eosinophilic pneumonia and to seek medical attention if they develop symptoms of pneumonia.
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Patients should be warned of the risk of hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis.
Intramuscular Injections: As with any IM injection, VIVITROL should be administered with caution to patients with thrombocytopenia or any coagulation disorder.
Serious adverse reactions that may be associated with VIVITROL therapy in clinical use include severe injection site reactions, eosinophilic pneumonia, serious allergic reactions, unintended precipitation of opioid withdrawal, accidental opioid overdose, and depression and suicidality. The adverse events seen most frequently in association with VIVITROL therapy for alcohol dependence include nausea, vomiting, injection site reactions (including induration, pruritus, nodules, and swelling), muscle cramps, dizziness or syncope, somnolence or sedation, anorexia, decreased appetite or other appetite disorders. The adverse events seen most frequently in association with VIVITROL in opioid-dependent patients also include hepatic enzyme abnormalities, injection site pain, nasopharyngitis, insomnia, and toothache.
You are encouraged to report negative side effects to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch or call 1-800-FDA-1088.